It seems the social translation is very closer to the aim

of modern era. Additionally, Jeremy Munday (2001)

posits that the social turn might be depicted as an attempt by social studies to colonize the less set up field of translation studies,. In terms of universal issues in translation, Molanzar (1996) describes two universal types of

issue cognized as linguistic gaps and social gaps

Due to the fact that linguistic gaps are universal, they are easily found and restored in the process of translation. For example, we know that in English for third person singular there is a S letter which is added at the end of the verb. During the process of translation, a translator who is interpreting from English into Persian understandably knows the difference and considers its correspondences in Persian; however, regarding social gaps, a translator cannot easily convey them

One can consider that cultural issues or gaps are not,

translatable. For example, the concept to sheep does not

exist in the Eskimo language, how a translator can translate it from English or Persian into Eskimo language. Even after explanation of such notions, they are not transferred completely

 

 

 It can be presumed that social issues are much more crucial than linguistic ones. Accordingly, some scholars believe that instead of analysing translation established on linguistic elements, we have to postdate the cultural path and cultural studies. In addition to the early interpretation, one of the notions that support cultural theories is that of colonialism and post- colonialism theories. One of the most decisive aspects of colonialism and post– colonialism theories is cultural- and cultural- tied in issues like literature

 

In order to clear up the above adverted aspects we can

get down with colonised and colonizer culture and literature. ,

Most of translation from these two into each other is

tied in to imbalance of power relation

 

This can be named the effect of more muscular culture on the less muscular one. It is also tied in to pretermit translation from Colonized culture into colonizer culture

 Most of the time the translation is ideologically actuated. Some scholars like Cronin, Spivak and Vieira concentrated on the social aspects and set up the center of their studies on social aspects of translation. Each of these translators has their extraordinary studies, as an example. Spivak (1993) who is a Bengali critic and translator concerns about the philosophic concerns of translation of cultural and literature issues. She always focused on the distortion of translation from autochthonal and colonised culture into colonizer culture she named it the “transaltionese”. She also says that the amidship intersection of translation studies and post complex theory is that of power relation

 

 

Another study which is relevant to this field is that of Nijana. She (1992) sees literate (as part of culture) translation as one of the discuses which in from the

 

hegemonic apparatuses that belong to the ideological structure of colonial rule. She concentrated on the way translation into English been utilized by the colonizers to set up a composed image of the east that has then come to stand up for the truth. She also provides the readers with the colonizer’s imposition of philosophic values

 

Another crucial instance of focus on cultural aspects of translation is that of Irish scholar Cronin. Cronin (1996) mainly concentrated on the more politically cocky work. He was in favor of colonialism and post colonialism because of the fact that they were against of Europe and the fresh world or Europe and the colony and they neglect the inner colonialism within Europe itself

Cronin (1999) uses the metaphor of translation to draw a

antiparallel with what was happening physically to the Irish

: “Translation at a social level (the encompass of English

acculturation) is antiparallel by translation at a jurisdictional

 

level, the forcible displacement and movement of populations.”

 

The third crucial movement in translation has come from Brazil. It focuses on the metaphor of anthropology or cannibalism which came out in the decade of 1920. Infant, cannibalism is a metaphor which means to drink and feed some one by blood. It is a means of assimilating others strength, which means not to refuse alien influences or nourishment, but to assimilate and transmute them by addition of dichotomous in set it is a communicative weapon

 

It is emphasized and marked by creation and recreation,

absorbing the ST and revitalizing it through nourished,

TT employ an energized and various form of the

dominant nation that is the post colony

 

 

 

All in all, cultural translation mainly studies during recent decades and developed crucially during 1990s by

the works of cronin, niranjana and spivak. They considerably turned to social translation and colonialism or post colonialism. They edify their studies with noticeable facts and examples which are bankable to any dianoetic theorists who are analysing translation. The better focus of their study is on the power relation that distorts the process of translation in favor of the colonizer culture and language. In the next part the colonialism and post colonialism will be discoursed and later on the relation is briefly explicated

Colonialism and post colonialism

Without colonialism there would be no post colonialism. Colonialism is about the dominance of an alcoholic nation over another weaker one. Colonialism happens when a strong sees that its -material interest and affluence necessitate that it spread out outside its borders

Characteristics of colonialism

1. Colonized cultures are inhumane and must be schooled

2. Colonizer culture is always stock

3. Colonized culture is in necessitate of chaste ground

4. Colonizer considers education and churchgoing instructing to colonised nation a beatified action

5. Colonized cultures are breakneck threat to themselves and civilised world

The effect of colonizer culture

There are so many views on the effects of colonialism. These views count on the governmental and philosophic position of those who disseminate them. Some claim that in spite of the alarming face of colonialism, it did a lot of acceptable to the colonised. It conveyed to the colonized a fresh vision of life, mainly Hesperian and passed on. It furthered an alcoholic sense of domestic unity. It brought industrialization

and modern economy to the colonies; and above all it advanced cultural life where it occurred

Post-Colonialism

In essence, what post colonialism, as a movement, does is to expose to both the colonizer and ex-colonized the falsity or validity of their assumptions. The pioneers are Niranjana, Spivak and Vieira that pertained them with cultural and cultural effect of colonization, they reckoned the way in which the west enamelled its path to the orient and the rest of the world as established on artificial truths. The features of post colonialism

1. Cultural relativism. This means that the colonialist’s defilement of culture is socially, morally and politically erroneous

2. The absurdity of complex language and discourses

3. Ambivalence towards authority. This ambivalence is born out of the struggle and conflict between autochthonal and settler with the outcome of the settler’s disposal this victory over the settler leads the autochthonal to question all forms of authority

4. Colonial alienation. Colonialism leads to the alienation
of the native in his own land. This is depicted as a
traumatic experience that erodes the individual’s identity
Interrelationship of cultural translation and post­

colonialism
Most of the post- colonial theorists believe that

translation is a matter of culture to be conveyed; therefore, the linguistic theories of translation are somehow marginal. It is not emphasized because its aspects are vivid and obvious; however, the cultural aspects are not easily and understandably conveyed. As it was adverted before there are many social issues that

are not transferable. This problem deteriorates when in the process of translation one language and culture is more powerful (colonizer) and another one is called less powerful (colonized). The problem became harder to deal with. Cultural issues are called the center of study of translation in the colonialism and post colonialism fields. It is widely believed that language and culture is inseparably dependant. Whenever translation comes it is the matter of culture and when it comes it is the matter of culture and when it comes to deal with complexism and postcomplexism, culture as the center of translation is also the center of complex and postcomplex translation

There fore, for example the literate translation from,

colonised culture into colonizer culture is a matter of

Conveying the all elements of colonised language and culture without any relation power or philosophic motivation, some thing that is not reckoned usually

 

 

In post-colonial translation theory is tied in to culture and sociology

All translation must be according to comprehensibility of source language (colonised language). They must also be interpreted established on the differences of autochthonal culture and language it must not be in accordance with power relation or philosophic and governmental motivation

 

 

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